New Optimum Biome
What if I told you that your gut was the most important endocrine organ in your body, controlling everything from metabolism to body composition to your health and mood? What if I told you that it was governed by trillions of bacteria, called the “microbiota”, who have long ago invaded and colonized it? What if I told you that this is as bad as it sounds? They are not all friendly – there is a war going on inside your body — and, the bad guys are winning!
Well, that is what I am telling you. It is time for YOU to fight back!
Neobium is your trusted ally, bringing the big guns and space lasers and nukes at your shit. We bring you three products, three weapons — Shock Therapy™, Suprabiotic™, and Primer™ — working together, by land, by air, by sea to conquer this terrible adversary.
Bacteria need to eat, too. Pamper them. A well fed microbiome is a happy and healthy microbiome. Give them the gourmet shit. Primer is a generously portioned blend of 11 prebiotic dishes and desserts meticulously chosen to entice the good bacterial denizens and citizens of your gut to feed and breed, prodigiously, while starving and poisoning unwelcome pathogenic bacterial inhabitants. Grow your own, right at home.
There are trillions of bacteria, living and breeding inside your body, right now. The gut and its microbiome are essentially a massive endocrine organ, controlling and influencing basically your entire body and brain. You need some of them to survive, but many of them hate you.
For most people, due to genetics and/or diet, the evil ones have gotten the upper hand, attacking you with not only fat gain, but whole body inflammation accompanied by damage to insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular and digestive health, the immune system, and even your skin and brain. And, given that all of these trillions of bacteria that call your gut “home” originally came from outside your body – and entered without your permission – it is by far the most important organ in which we can take steps to manipulate and regain control.
You have sought out and destroyed these invaders with Shock Therapy™, freeing the kingdom of your gut. You are repopulating it with loyal, benevolent bacterial citizens with SupraBiotic™. But, you must feed, protect, and nurture them.
Primer™ provides a gourmet buffet of prebiotic dishes specifically prepared to the needs and tastes of the most beneficial probiotic bacteria, along with the materials to rebuild, fortify, and make impregnable, the castle walls that are the intestinal barrier.
The Gut-Wrenching Truth
The Western lifestyle (including diet, lack of exercise, and alcohol use) leads to an imbalance of the bacterial composition of the gut. This results in the excess production of inflammatory signals, such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which escape the gut and enter the rest of your body. This leads to general digestive issues and inflammatory bowel syndromes like IBS. While fixing digestive disorders will come along for the ride, our primary focus is going to be on body composition and metabolic health. In other words, we want to make you leaner, protect against diabetes, and help keep you from having a heart attack or stroke.
LPS causes an increase in digestion speed, which leads to less nutrient absorption and feedback signals that tell the brain that it is time to stop eating. But, in the colon, speed is decreased which results in a greater total utilization of caloric energy from your food.
In other words, your brain tells you to keep eating and this leads to excessive fat accumulation from harvesting more calories. This aggravates the cycle further, as overeating and increased adiposity are inflammatory. So, what you have is more inflammation, more dysfunction, greater food intake, greater extraction of food, more fat accumulation, and REPEAT!
The carnage does not end here. Along with this inflammatory state is a disruption in the intestinal barrier. Intestinal permeability is increased and these inflammatory agents spill out. This is often called a “leaky gut”. The biggest culprit here is, once again, LPS.
This goes in conjunction with decrease in activity of brake signals such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), PPAR-alpha, and AMPK that act as anti-inflammatories and protect intestinal barrier function.
Once LPS escapes, it is active in the body and brain, just as in the intestine. In the fat tissue, this leads to fat storage. In the brain, it increases appetite, hunger, and food intake. It does so by decreasing both insulin and leptin insensitivity, peripherally and centrally, via Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4). At this point, your body fat thermostat is wrecked, your ability to control food intake is gone, and you are a fat storing machine.
It is important to note, this low-level but constant systemic inflammation, PRECEDES insulin/leptin resistance and obesity. Elevated LPS levels, which occur during a Western-style and high-fat diet, initiate all of this.
More bad news: atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke are promoted by these same inflammatory pathways. Combined with the increased body fat and insulin resistance, you officially have the perfect ingredients for the dreaded Metabolic Syndrome.
Obviously, this is not what you want your body doing to itself. It is not what you want it doing to you. It is not what you want it doing to your life.
And, it is just a bunch of microscopic bacteria causing all of this devastation. They need to go.
The most well-known, commercial probiotics are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. They are also among the most common in the body, along with several other really interesting ones which are not commercially available, but we can manipulate with supplementation as you will soon learn.
Unfortunately, Lactobacillus belong to the Firmicutes phylum which is associated with weight gain and obesity. Just a 20% increase in Firmicutes with an equal decrease in Bacteroides results in an increased energy harvest of 150 calories per day in humans. That is equal to 15lbs of fat per year! Modern food processing and the Western style diet promote these negative changes in microbial proportions. Thus, one can plainly see why it can be so difficult to get lean, as well as how easily obesity has become an epidemic.
In addition, probiotic treatment with several Lactobacillus species are directly associated with weight gain, body mass index, obesity, and Type-2 diabetes. They don’t tell you that on the label.
More powerful evidence of the profound effect of the microbiota on body weight and metabolism come from studies on fecal transfer. And, yes, that is exactly what it sounds like – transferring poop from one subject’s intestine to another’s. In twins, transfer of an obese microbiota to lean mice was accompanied by an increase in fat cell formation, fat storage, bodyweight, fat mass, feelings of hunger, food consumption, and a dysbiotic alteration of the Firmicutes:Bacteroides ratio to reflect that of the obese model. On the other side of the coin, transferring the intestinal microbiota from lean donors to obese does the opposite – it fixes all of these things. Obviously, while it highlights the science, doing a fecal transfer is not terribly practical, appetizing, or readily available.
Fortunately, there is good news. While several species and strains of lactobacillus have been found to promote weight gain, several have also been found to protect against it. And, of course, we only used the good ones. Furthermore, Bifidobacterium have shown only positive effects to a remarkable extent.
So, let’s get to it.
You may have noticed that almost no probiotic formulas contain just a single species of bacteria, nowadays. And, if you did not, I will just say that it is for a good reason. They work better in combination. Microbial diversity is good. Essentially, a diverse gut is a healthy gut. This applies to the prebiotics that feed them. You need a variety of prebiotics to grow a variety of probiotic bacterial species.
However, you do not to be randomly feeding every single species and strain inside of you. It needs to be done rationally. You want the good ones to gorge themselves, and the bad ones to have to go hungry.
Another benefit of prebiotic combinations is by providing precursors to promote cross-feeding. This is when fermentation by one bacterial strain produces metabolites that others use for fuel, as we will discuss in a bit.
The Best Probiotics That Money Can’t Buy
Unfortunately, several species of bacteria with some of the very best data are not available commercially, due to regulatory issues and well as practical challenges that will not soon be resolved.
Fortunately, there are a myriad of ways to specifically target and increase these strains using methods that ARE available. And, that is exactly what we have done. So, let’s take a look at these novel wonder-bacteria.
Bacteroides are butyrate and propionate producing. Levels were 6-fold higher in lean vs. obese subjects. It has a negative correlation with fat mass, waist circumference, and energy intake. Bacteroides levels in Type-2 diabetes were only half that of those with normal glucose tolerance. The Firmicutes:Bacteroides ratio was also significantly worse in obese patients, even in comparison with the merely overweight .
Various species in the Bacteroides genus reduced bodyweight and fat gain, triglycerides, and adipocyte volume while improving insulin and leptin sensitivity. It also lowered LPS and other inflammatory signals, while increasing fatty acid oxidation via PPAR-alpha.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is butyrate producing and is considered a physiological sensor and marker of human health. It really does not get much more important than that. It is lower in the obese and type-2 diabetics, as well as higher in normal glucose tolerance vs. prediabetic subjects. It reduces inflammatory markers, improves intestinal barrier function, and is sharply decreased in various inflammatory bowel diseases.
Akkermansia muciniphilia is mucin consuming and butyrate producing. Levels are higher in lean subjects than the general population and decreased in obesity and type-2 diabetes. This species is also inversely correlated to fasting glucose, waist-to-hip ratio, subcutaneous adipocyte diameter, plasma triglyceride levels, visceral adipose tissue mass, and insulin resistance.
Its administration reduced fat mass, adipose tissue inflammation, and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Akkermansia levels are higher in normal glucose tolerance vs. pre-diabetic subjects. It increases intestinal endocannabinoid levels, decreasing inflammatory cytokine production and protecting intestinal barrier function.
Roseburia species are butyrate producing. Increased levels are associated with decreased body weight, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and triglycerides — independent of calorie intake. Higher Roseburia counts are correlated with reduced body weight, improved profile of lipid and obesity related gene expression, along with a normalized inflammatory status. It is also lower in type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis.
Bifidobacterium adolescentis as Cross-Feeder
B. adolescentis is hugely important in helping to feed other bacteria, specifically the really good ones that we just talked about, which we cannot get commercially.
B. adolescentis is superior to other potential cross-feeding Bifidobacterium in that it provides a slow, steady degradation of oligosaccharides for a long, continuous release of substrate for these various bacteria to feed on. It is essentially time-released, allowing acetate feeding, butyrate producing bacteria to grow and thrive throughout the entire length of the gut.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is almost fully dependent on acetate, which B. adolescentis supplies. F. prausnitzii converts it to butyrate with 85% efficiency, and its growth is enhanced by co-culture with B. adolescentis. Roseburia also generally requires acetate for growth. B. adolescentis also increases Roseburia and F. prausnitzii via partial breakdown of prebiotic oligosaccharides and carbohydrates, which they can then feed on.
Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)
One of the primary ways that probiotic bacteria work their magic is by fermenting prebiotics and producing SCFAs (primarily acetate, butyrate, and propionate). Low carbohydrate diets can result in less fermentable material, thus lower SCFA levels, if you do not make a point to get adequate fiber. SCFAs primarily work by activating free fatty acid receptors, FFAR2 and FFRA3 and by decreasing inflammation and permeability in the gut.
Induction of FFA2/3 protects against obesity and insulin resistance by decreasing hunger and food intake, increasing energy expenditure, and improving glucose and lipid metabolism. Butyrate is also the preferred energy source, along with Glutamine, for maintenance and repair of epithelial cells in the colon. It increases tight junction assembly, thus improving barrier function, specifically through AMPK.
AMPK is basically the airbrakes on the runaway train of inflammation and “leaky gut” induced metabolic dysfunction caused by modern food processing, the Western diet, and microbial dysbiosis. In addition to its involvement in barrier function, AMPK activation is extremely positive for the great bacteria that we can’t get commercially. Its activation increases Akkermansia and Bacteroides levels, at least partially by elevating production of mucin, one of their favorite foods.
As Primer™ is primarily a prebiotic, let’s start with those. Prebiotics have come a long way since oat bran and psyllium husks. Beginning with inulin, a huge array of oligosaccharide and glycan type compounds have been found to be fermented and fed on by intestinal bacteria. These newer prebiotics tend to be basically tasteless and dissolve effortlessly, which is quite handy.
Reduces appetite, food intake, bodyweight, and fat mass
Elevates expression of pro-satiety peptides
Akkermansia and Bacteroides food, mucin, increased 2-4 fold
Increases Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides as much as 5-10 fold
Combined with Calcium increases propionate formation
Long-acting prebiotic effect throughout the entire length of the colon
Direct enhancement of tight junction proteins and intestinal barrier function separate from SCFA or anti-inflammatory mediated mechanisms.
Mitigate LPS induced inflammation and protect against stress induced LPS activity
Increases satiety inducing peptides, while decreasing weight gain, fat mass, and insulin resistance
Increases butyrate with Bifidobacterium suggestive of subsequent cross-feeding
Elevates Roseburia, Bacteroides, and butyrate levels, with total SCFA increases as high as 2-3 fold
Reduces protein fermentation in the gut, sparing amino acids and preventing toxic breakdown products
Increases tight junction proteins, improves barrier function, and inhibits inflammation in adipose tissue
Increases Bifidobacterium along with acetate and butyrate
Combining with inulin further augments butyrate formation, as well as propionate, suggesting cross-feeding to butyrate and propionate producing bacteria like Roseburia and Bacteroides
Promotes both Roseburia and Bacteroides, as well as improving the Firmicutes:Bacteroides ratio
Bacteroides possess special xylan degrading enzymes, making them a preferred fermenter
Decreases LPS while increasing epithelial cell proliferation
Inhibits adipogenesis and fat accumulation, down-regulates adipogenic genes, and reduces caloric extraction efficiency
Increases energy expenditure and lipolysis
Improves post-meal blood glucose and insulin levels
Raises Bifidobacterium, particularly of the ideal cross-feeder B. adolescentis
Decreases proteolysis of amino acids in the gut, sparing amino acids and preventing toxic breakdown products
Decreases intestinal permeability
Improves glucose uptake in insulin resistant cells via AMPK
Prolonged Bifidogenic effect, with more distal fermentation vs Fructo-oligosaccharides
Increases butyrate along with Bifidobacterium, suggestive of cross-feeding
Better SCFA production vs Fructo-oligosaccharides, particularly of butyrate and propionate, suggestive of cross-feeding
Increased cross-feeder B. adolescentis more than 4-fold and F. prausnitzii by 50%
Augmented mucin production 6-fold, leading to large elevations in Akkermansia and propionate
Reduces protein fermentation, sparing amino acids and preventing toxic breakdown products
Resistant Starch 3 (RS3)
Uniquely, highly prebiotic for Ruminococcus bromii, with increases up to 4-fold
R. bromii has superior ability to degrade this resistant starch, making it a “keystone species” by acting as a cross-feeder for other species
Readily consumed by Bacteroides, elevating propionate
Propionate formation reflects a gut community dominated by Bacteroides
Superior to several other prebiotics for increasing butyrate producers F. prausnitzii and Roseburia
Roseburia and Bacteroides proportional to the amylopectin content of barley and oats
Favorite food of Akkermansia
Verrucomicrobia, of which Akkermansia is the primary genus, was increased 175 fold by mucin
Combined with inulin, increases Bacteroides
Bacteroides thetaiotamicron and Bacteroides fragillis are mucin degrading specialist
Roseburia intestinalis also colonizes the mucosal layer and feeds on mucins
SCFAs from mucin feeders have enhanced bioavailability for epithelial cell regeneration and barrier function enhancement
Preferred sugar for the propanediol pathway of propionate production by Roseburia inulinivorans
Quite selectively metabolized to propionate, 4 times more so than lactulose or glucose
Decreases triglyceride synthesis and serum triglyceride levels, likely due to propionate’s effects on the SCFA receptors FFAR 2/3
Primary fuel substrate of the epithelial cells of the digestive tract, as glucose is for most others
Activates protein synthetic mTOR cell signaling in enterocytes, as leucine does in muscle
Most important fuel for survival, growth, and reproduction of the enterocyte
Increases tight junction protein production
Enhances intestinal growth, enterocyte proliferation and survival, and regulates intestinal barrier function in injury, infection, stress, inflammation, and other catabolic conditions
Inflammatory conditions increase the requirements for Glutamine to maintain the intestinal barrier
Quells the LPS mediated inflammatory cascade, prevents mucosal injury, and promotes recovery from LPS induced inflammatory damage
Downregulates TLR-4 expression
Specifically protects intestinal barrier against processed, Western diet style foods
Enhancement of tight junction integrity and barrier preservation mediated by AMPK
Promote the colonization of F. prausnitzii and Roseburia
Reduces fat gain and increases fat loss as much as 50%
Stimulates thermogenesis in adipose and muscle tissue
Increases lipolysis by 3 to 5-fold
Elevated satiety inducing peptides and decreases food intake
Improves intestinal permeability, strengthens the mucosal barrier, reduces inflammation, and alleviates colitis
Prebiotics dependent on Calcium Phosphate for positive effects on intestinal permeability and inflammation
Necessary for AMPK signaling and barrier maintenance produced by Glutamine
The power of berries
Equal to ¼ cup worth of mixed berries
Berries contain polyphenols and fiber and such
Nice, subtle berry flavor
Primer™ takes the concept of prebiotic far beyond where anyone has previously taken it before. It starts by carefully and selectively feeding the most beneficial bacterial species, including novel probiotic species that you cannot attain, anywhere. It does so in a way that no other product comes even close to doing. It protects against dysfunction of the gut and microbiota to promote better health, better appetite control, better metabolism, and better fat loss. Finally, its supporting ingredients go to work on making your inflamed and leaky gut as good as new, leaving your body functioning in the optimal way it is intended to.
Primer™ is a gourmet meal for your microbiota and a happy-ending massage for your gut. It is a one of a kind product that fits in perfectly with and enhances any diet and exercise program, any supplement regimen, any lifestyle.
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